Introduction ::LuxembourgBackground:Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area. In January 2013, Luxembourg assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.Geography ::LuxembourgLocation:Western Europe, between France and GermanyGeographic coordinates:49 45 N, 6 10 EArea:total: 2,586 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 179land: 2,586 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than Rhode IslandLand boundaries:total: 359 kmborder countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:modified continental with mild winters, cool summersTerrain:mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeastElevation extremes:lowest point: Moselle River 133 mhighest point: Buurgplaatz 559 mNatural resources:iron ore (no longer exploited), arable landLand use:arable land: 23.9%permanent crops: 0.58%other: 75.52% (includes Belgium) (2011)Irrigated land:NATotal renewable water resources:3.1 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.06 cu km/yr (65%/33%/1%)per capita: 135.9 cu m/yr (2010)Natural hazards:NAEnvironment - current issues:air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmlandEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: Environmental ModificationGeography - note:landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the worldPeople and Society ::LuxembourgNationality:noun: Luxembourger(s)adjective: LuxembourgEthnic groups:Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other EU 7.3%, other 5.2% (2000 census)Languages:Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)Religions:Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)Population:514,862 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 173Age structure:0-14 years: 18% (male 47,679/female 44,812)15-24 years: 12.6% (male 33,182/female 31,860)25-54 years: 42.3% (male 109,075/female 108,922)55-64 years: 11.8% (male 30,481/female 30,422)65 years and over: 15.2% (male 32,892/female 45,537) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 46.5 %youth dependency ratio: 25.7 %elderly dependency ratio: 20.8 %potential support ratio: 4.8 (2013)Median age:total: 39.6 yearsmale: 38.5 yearsfemale: 40.6 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.13% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 105Birth rate:11.72 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 168Death rate:8.52 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 80Net migration rate:8.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 15Urbanization:urban population: 85% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:LUXEMBOURG (capital) 90,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:29.3 (2008 est.)Maternal mortality rate:20 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 142Infant mortality rate:total: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 193male: 4.37 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.88 yearscountry comparison to the world: 37male: 76.64 yearsfemale: 83.33 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.77 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 161Health expenditures:7.8% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 66Physicians density:2.86 physicians/1,000 population (2007)Hospital bed density:5.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.3% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 89HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 140HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 100 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Obesity - adult prevalence rate:26% (2008)country comparison to the world: 50Education expenditures:3.8% of GDP (2001)country comparison to the world: 118Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 100%male: 100%female: 100% (2000 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 yearsmale: 14 yearsfemale: 14 years (2010)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 16.8%country comparison to the world: 78male: 13.3%female: 20.8% (2011)Government ::LuxembourgCountry name:conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourgconventional short form: Luxembourglocal long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourglocal short form: LuxembourgGovernment type:constitutional monarchyCapital:name: Luxembourggeographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, LuxembourgIndependence:1839 (from the Netherlands)National holiday:National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of yearConstitution:17 October 1868; occasional revisionsLegal system:civil law systemInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universal and compulsoryExecutive branch:chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputiesnote: government coalition - CSV and LSAPLegislative branch:unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)elections: last held on 7 June 2009 (next to be held by June 2014)election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 38%, LSAP 21.6%, DP 15%, Green Party 11.7%, ADR 8.1%, The Left 3.3%, other 2.3%; seats by party - CSV 26, LSAP 13, DP 9, Green Party 7, ADR 4, The Left 1note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime ministerJudicial branch:highest court(s): Superior Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for lifesubordinate courts: district and local tribunals and courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Jean SCHOOS]Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Michel WOLTER]The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [Fabienne LENTZ and David WAGNER]Democratic Party or DP [Xavier BETTEL]Green Party [Sam TANSON and Christian GOEBEL]Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]other minor partiesPolitical pressure groups and leaders:ABBL (bankers' association)ALEBA (financial sector trade union)Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers)CEP (professional sector chamber)CGFP (trade union representing civil service)Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce)Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers)FEDIL (federation of industrialists)Greenpeace (environment protection)LCGP (center-right trade union)Mouvement Ecologique (environment protection)OGBL (center-left trade union)International organization participation:ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCDiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Jean-Louis WOLZFELDchancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 265-4171 through 72FAX:  (202) 328-8270consulate(s) general: New York, San FranciscoDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Robert MANDELLembassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg Citymailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)telephone:  46-01-23FAX:  46-14-01Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)National symbol(s):lionNational anthem:name: ""Ons Heemecht"" (Our Motherland); ""De Wilhelmus"" (The William)lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknownnote: ""Ons Heemecht,"" adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while ""De Wilhelmus,"" adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in LuxembourgEconomy ::LuxembourgEconomy - overview:This small, stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 27% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings, but Luxembourg has lost some of its advantages as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 40% of its labor force. Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic crisis that began in late 2008, but unemployment has trended below the EU average. Following strong expansion from 2004 to 2007, Luxembourg's economy contracted 3.6% in 2009, but rebounded in 2010-11 before slowing again in 2012. The country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks among the highest in the world, and is the highest in the euro zone. Turmoil in the world financial markets and lower global demand during 2008-09 prompted the government to inject capital into the banking sector and implement stimulus measures to boost the economy. Government stimulus measures and support for the banking sector, however, led to a 5% government budget deficit in 2009. Nevertheless, the deficit was cut to 1.1% in 2011 and 0.9% in 2012. Even during the financial crisis and recovery, Luxembourg retained the highest current account surplus as a share of GDP in the euro zone, owing largely to their strength in financial services. Public debt remains among the lowest of the region although it has more than doubled since 2007 as percentage of GDP. Luxembourg's economy, while stabile, grew slowly in 2012 due to ongoing weak growth in the euro area. Authorities have strengthened supervision of domestic banks because of their exposure to the activities of foreign banks.GDP (purchasing power parity):$42.92 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 100$42.87 billion (2011 est.)$42.17 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$56.74 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:0.1% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1801.7% (2011 est.)2.9% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$81,100 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 5$82,500 (2011 est.)$83,100 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 31%government consumption: 16.8%investment in fixed capital: 19.9%investment in inventories: 0%exports of goods and services: 170.5%imports of goods and services: -138.3%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 0.4%industry: 13.6%services: 86% (2007 est.)Agriculture - products:grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy and livestock productsIndustries:banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourismIndustrial production growth rate:6.2% (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 41Labor force:208,200country comparison to the world: 168note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2012 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 2.2%industry: 17.2%services: 80.6% (2007 est.)Unemployment rate:6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 585.7% (2011 est.)Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.5%highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)Distribution of family income - Gini index:26 (2005)country comparison to the world: 130Budget:revenues: $23.78 billionexpenditures: $24.43 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:41.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 36Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-1.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 62Public debt:19% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 12918.7% of GDP (2011 est.)note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctionsFiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):2.7% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 743.4% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:1.5% (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 1281.75% (31 December 2010)note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro areaStock of narrow money:$90.08 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 37$90.24 billion (31 December 2011 est.)note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own bordersStock of broad money:$229.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 38Stock of domestic credit:$97.74 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 51$95.08 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$67.63 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 42$101.1 billion (31 December 2010)$105.6 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:$500 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 46$3.033 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$13.2 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 83$19.22 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glassExports - partners:Germany 21.6%, France 15.5%, Belgium 14.5%, UK 5.8%, Italy 5.6%, Switzerland 4.7% (2012)Imports:$23.29 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 72$26.54 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goodsImports - partners:Belgium 30.9%, Germany 23.4%, France 10.4%, US 8.2%, China 7.2%, Netherlands 5.1% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$991 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 137$1.014 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$2.643 trillion (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 7$2.084 trillion (31 December 2011)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$NAExchange rates:euros (EUR) per US dollar -0.7778 (2012 est.)0.7185 (2011 est.)0.755 (2010 est.)0.7198 (2009 est.)0.6827 (2008 est.)Energy ::LuxembourgElectricity - production:2.49 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 131Electricity - consumption:5.973 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 105Electricity - exports:3.216 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Electricity - imports:7.28 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 30Electricity - installed generating capacity:1.702 million kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 107Electricity - from fossil fuels:28.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 181Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 127Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 134Electricity - from other renewable sources:5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 37Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 157Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 143Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 209Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 156Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 198Refined petroleum products - consumption:61,380 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 93Refined petroleum products - exports:686.3 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 115Refined petroleum products - imports:51,930 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 66Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 156Natural gas - consumption:1.183 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 86Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Natural gas - imports:1.183 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 160Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:10.8 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 98Communications ::LuxembourgTelephones - main lines in use:279,100 (2011)country comparison to the world: 121Telephones - mobile cellular:765,000 (2011)country comparison to the world: 159Telephone system:general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cablesdomestic: fixed line teledensity over 50 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturatedinternational: country code - 352 (2010)Broadcast media:Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services to pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available (2008)Internet country code:.luInternet hosts:250,900 (2012)country comparison to the world: 68Internet users:424,500 (2009)country comparison to the world: 121Transportation ::LuxembourgAirports:2 (2013)country comparison to the world: 202Airports - with paved runways:total: 1over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 1under 914 m:1 (2013)Heliports:1 (2013)Pipelines:gas 142 km; refined products 27 km (2013)Railways:total: 275 kmcountry comparison to the world: 123standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2008)Roadways:total: 5,227 kmcountry comparison to the world: 152paved: 5,227 km (includes 147 km of expressways) (2008)Waterways:37 km (on Moselle River) (2010)country comparison to the world: 105Merchant marine:total: 49country comparison to the world: 71by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 3, chemical tanker 20, container 10, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 12foreign-owned: 48 (Belgium 11, Denmark 1, France 15, Germany 9, Japan 3, Netherlands 3, Switzerland 1, UK 5)registered in other countries: 18 (Italy 14, Malta 3, Panama 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:MertertMilitary ::LuxembourgMilitary branches:Luxembourg Army (L'Armee Luxembourgeoises) (2013)Military service age and obligation:18-24 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 118,665females age 16-49: 117,456 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 97,290females age 16-49: 96,361 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 3,263female: 3,084 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)country comparison to the world: 142Transnational Issues ::LuxembourgDisputes - international:noneRefugees and internally displaced persons:stateless persons: 177 (2012)"
The World Factbook. 2014.